The development of the laser printer

The laser printer was invented by Xerox Corporation in the late 1960s, using electrophotographic (Electro-photo-graphy) technology. The technique utilizes a laser beam scans the photosensitive drum, by controlling the on and off of the laser beam to pass the photosensitive double sided strap on drum to make the toner suction or not suck , and then the photosensitive drum let the adsorpted toner transfer onto the paper and finally forming a print result.The entire printing process in the laser printer can be divided into the the controller processing stage, the ink film and the transfer stage. Here you can find the best stimulant free preworkout

Compared with dot matrix printers and inkjet printers, laser printers have very obvious advantages.

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(1) higher density. The laser printer has the resolution of 300dpi, 400dpi, 600dpi, 800dpi, 1200dpi, and 2400dpi and 4800dpi high resolution.

(2) higher speed. The lowest printing speed of the laser printer is 4ppm, generally 12ppm, 16ppm, some laser printers print speed can reach more than 24ppm.

(3) lower noise. Generally below 53dB, very suitable for use in a quiet office.

(4) higher processing ability. Laser printer controller’s CPU and memory controller is equivalent to the motherboard of the computer, so it can deals with complex word processing, image processing, graphics processing, which is a dot matrix printer and an inkjet printer can not be completed, but also this is the main difference between the page printer and a line printer.

The laser printer was invention early, but really popularize and promote util at  the beginning of the 1980s.
The laser printers development include the following aspects.
(1) The price declines significantly

The initial laser printer is a luxury and most people is not able to afford. The early 1980s, the Canon company make desktop laser printers commercialization and the formation of the bulk price declines, thus, laser printer before gradually began to promote the popularity and promotion, in turn, promote the price decline, the pace of development is fast, and this situation is rare in the computer and its peripherals products. Early 1997, Hewlett-Packard took the lead in most laser printers price further reduced, other companies have also lowered the price, approaching ordinary laser printer machine price $500.
(2) movement performance has greatly improved

As a laser printer the key components of the movement, including machinery, optical integration technology, these technological advances in recent years has promoted the improvement of the movement performance. Two years ago, the popularity of laser printers movement generally 600dpi, the movement now are generally 240000dpi, or even higher; speed from 4ppm, 8ppm development to 16ppm, 24ppm.
(3) control technology has improved steadily

Controller is the soul of a laser printer, it directly affects the performance of the printer: First, the controller uses the processor (CPU) the from single Motorola68000 development to now RISC chips such as Intel’s i960, AMD’s 29000, its processing power significantly strengthened; Second, the industry standard laser printer page description language (PDL) has been formed, PostScript has become a standard language for high-end laser printer; HPPCL language to become middle and low standard laser printer fact. Laser printer either has one of the languages of the simulation, or both; Once again, the resolution enhancement technology (RET smoothing technique is also called) and Memory Enhancement technology (MET, also known as memory compression technology) and other new technology, and more and more manufacturers have mastered.

Color laser printer features

1 Fast print speed, at least three color pages, 16 black and white pages per minute.

2 Effectency is nearly equivalent to the effectency of inkjet 1440dpi, 600dpi or more.

3 True color, color laser printer imaging principle similar to printing, color reproduction than inkjet.

4 Doesn’t need special paper,  you can easily print out the effect of the photo quality.

5 Low printing costs, the cost of color printing is 10 times lower than inkjet and also toner will not evaporate.

6 Print color has nothing to do with the paper, plain paper, glossy, copper, print results, especially little color difference, expensive photo paper or inkjet paper but not good, and prone to paper jams.

7 Supports network printing, most laser printer users are companies, enterprises, and supports network printing is a necessary option.

8  Can be automatic two-sided printing, automatic duplex printing function can be increased by adding adapters, some color laser printer also comes standard with this feature (for example: the Minolta QMS MC2DLD and MC2 + D)

9 Large-capacity paper boxes, color laser printer comes standard tray can put at least 250, do not need a one feed, some two cartons, which can put two different specifications of the paper.

how laser printer internally works?

The laser beam emitted by the laser light deflecting mirror incident acoustic modulator, Meanwhile, the binary graphic lattice information sent by the computer, from the interface to the glyph generator, the formation of the desired glyph binary pulse information, the signal generated by the synchronization controller controls the nine high-frequency oscillator, and then by the frequency synthesizer and the power amplifier is added to the acousto-optical modulator, for modulating the incident laser beam by the reflection mirror. Modulated beam into the multi-faceted rotating mirror shot after wide-angle focusing mirror focuses the beam to the surface of the photoconductive drum (drum), the angular velocity scan into line speed scanning, complete the scanning process.

Pole charging the drum surface of the first charge to obtain a certain potential, after which contains graphic image information of the laser beam exposure, then at the surface of the drum to form an electrostatic latent image through the magnetic brush developing device developing the latent image into visible toner image, passes through the transfer zone, the electric field under the action of the transfer electrode, the toner will transfer to plain paper, and finally through the preheating plate and the high temperature heat roller fixing, i.e. on paper fused text and images. In print graphic information before, cleaning roller toner transfer did not go clear eraser lamp to drum on the residual charge cleared, then cleaning paper system for thorough cleaning, you can enter the new one work cycle.

Laser printer exactly how to print fine text and graphics? In fact, the printing process is basically the same as laser printers and copiers. For laser printers, the images in the Print action occurred before had produced. First, the computer need to print the contents of the conversion into the computer read it to understand the code, these codes and then transmitted to the printer. In this case, the printer language, then these codes deciphered into a lattice pattern – this deciphering process is very important. The dot pattern on the monitor screen printer language pattern is exactly the same, this consistency is laser printers have been pursuing WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) “. Deciphered after lattice pattern is sent to the laser generator, the content of the laser generator according to the pattern made on and off the reaction quickly, the laser beam is projected onto a charging rotary drum on the surface of the drum all by laser irradiation to The place charge are freed but still with a charge, while the laser does not shine.

Overview of laser printers

 the basic structure
The laser printer is a laser, acousto-optic modulator, high-frequency drive, scanner, synchronizer, and the light deflector, whose role is to binary dot information modulated on the laser beam is sent by the interface circuit, and after scanning to the photosensitive body. The photoreceptor and photographic institutions electrophotographic transferring system, the graphic image onto the photosensitive drum is transferred onto the printing paper, the principle is the same with the copier. A laser printer is a combination of laser scanning technology and electronic imaging technology nonimpact output device. Its different models, there are also differences in the printing functions, but the operating principle is substantially identical, to go through: charging, exposure, developing, transferring, elimination, cleaning, fixing a seven step, which has a five step around the photosensitive drum . When the text to be printed or an image input to the computer through their computer software preprocessing. And then converted by the printer driver into the printer can recognize a print command (printer language) sent to the high frequency drive circuit to control the ON and OFF of the laser emitter to form dot matrix laser beam, then by scanning rotating mirror for electronic imaging systems the axial scanning exposure of the photosensitive drum, to achieve vertical scanning is rotated by the photosensitive drum itself.
The photosensitive drum is a photosensitive device, the characteristics of the light conduction. A coating material for the surface of the light guide before the scanning exposure by the charging roller charged to a uniform charge. When the laser beam in the lattice form of bursts to the photosensitive drum, the point being scanned due to exposure and conduction by the conductive substrate, the charge is released rapidly. No exposure point still maintain the original charge, so that the surface of the photosensitive drum to form the location of a potential difference latent image (electrostatic latent image), when with the electrostatic latent image on the photosensitive drum rotates to contain the toner magnetic roller , oppositely charged toner is adsorbed to the surface of the photosensitive drum to form a toner image.
When containing the toner image of the photosensitive drum continues to rotate, and to reach the image transfer device, a printing paper is also sent to the middle of the photosensitive drum and the image transfer device, the image transfer device at the back of the printing paper to cast a strong voltage, image to attract the toner on the photosensitive drum to printing paper, and then containing the toner image on printing paper fed to the high-temperature fixing device warmed, pressurized hot melt toner melted immersed into the printing paper, the final output is printed text or image.

history of the development of Printer 2

Time events Minutes

The birth of the world’s first inkjet printer in 1976
1976 piezoelectric ink point control technology came
1979 Bubble Jet Bubble advent of inkjet technology
Canon Company in August 1980 for the first time the bubble jet technology applied to its inkjet printer Y-80, was the beginning of the history of inkjet printers.
In 1991 the first color inkjet printers, large format printers
1994 Micro Piezo print technology was introduced.
1996 Lexmark utilization of EXCIMER argon (ARGON) / the fluorine (FLUMRINE) laser cutting technology introduced the world’s first 1200 * 1200dpi ultra-high-resolution color inkjet printer Lexmark CJ7000
1998 also has the world’s first color PHYSICOCHEMICAL 1440dpi maximum resolution and six-color printing capabilities EPSON Stylus Photo700 launch in 1998 the world’s first 7-color photo printer Canon BJC-7100 was born in 1999 do not use the computer to play A4 color inkjet photo printer EpsonIP-100 turned out to

2000 first color inkjet printer supports automatic duplex printing HP DJ970Cxi born.
In 2003 the world’s first application of the eight-color ink technology digital photo printer HP Photosmart 7960 advent of the spring of 2005, the birth of the world’s first 9-color photo printer HP Photosmart 8758
In 1976, the birth of the first inkjet printer inkjet printing technology as early as 1960, it was suggested that, but after 16 years of the first commercial inkjet printer before the birth of IBM original IBM4640 using Europe Sweden Luther industrial technology College professors Hertz and his colleagues developed, called continuous inkjet technology. The so-called continuous ink jet is either stamped or non-stamped, are produced in a continuous manner droplets, then the non-stamped ink droplets recovered or dispersed. But this technique is almost with droplets of ink dots printed onto the paper, the effect of the differential is conceivable, so in reality no practical value.
1976 piezoelectric ink-point control technology came the and IBM4640 same year, the the three Siemens technology pioneer researchers Zoltan, Kyser and Sear successful piezo ink dots in the same year R & D development control technology (EPSON predecessor) and successfully used in Seimens Pt-80, this printer production in 1978 sales, to become a commercial value in the world’s first inkjet printer.
1979 Bubble Jet bubble inkjet technology researcher advent of Japan’s Canon successfully developed the the Bubble Bubble Jet ink-jet technology, this technology uses fuser instantaneous heating of the ink on the nozzle will produce bubbles formation pressure, so that the ink from the nozzle then take advantage of the physical properties of the ink itself cooling hot bubbles fade, to take to achieve control dots in and out with the size of a double purpose. Here a little story, referring to the company’s day in July 1977, the Tokyo Meguro Canon product technology Institute 22 laboratory Endo Ichiro, when the experiment is carried out in the laboratory, accidentally heated soldering iron on injection attachment of the needle from the needle quickly flying out of ink. Inspired, two years after the invention of the bubble inkjet technology. At the same time, HP also invented the the essentially same technology that HP and Canon are unanimously declared its own researchers invented the first ink-jet printing technology, in order to establish their own position in the field of inkjet printing. However, the “bubble” concept has been Canon snatched, HP had named this Thermal Ink-Jet.
In August 1980, Canon first bubble jet technology applied to its inkjet printer Y-80. From the beginning of the history of the ink-jet printer.
In 1991, the first color inkjet printers, large-format the printer appears Hewlett-Packard HP deskjet 500C is the world’s first color inkjet printer, June 1994, domestic only local transformation products HP DeskJet 525Q. The HP DesignJet was Hewlett-Packard for the first time its thermal inkjet printing technology applications to large-format printer, the launch of the world’s first monochrome large format inkjet printer. Color inkjet printer, the emergence of large-format printing are the most important milestone in the history of inkjet printers.
In 1994, the advent of the Micro Piezo print technology

history of the development of Printer 1

The rapid development of the Internet, it was predicted that the paperless era is approaching the end of the printer has to. However, the global paper consumption is growing every year to double the speed printer sales are increasing at an average of nearly 8% rate. All this indicates that the printer will not only not disappeared, and will develop more and more to fast, increasingly broad application areas. From the emergence of the world’s first printer in 1885, and later a variety of dot matrix printers, inkjet printers and laser printers, they are each at different times leading the trend, today we are seeking the footsteps of history, technology, brand with three aspects of the product, the application of the market and target consumers, recalling the glorious history of the inkjet printer, a simple analysis PHYSICOCHEMICAL future trends. The basic working principle of the technology of inkjet printers are the first to generate ink droplets, small ink droplets are guided to a position set re-use ink-jet head, the ink droplet is smaller, the printed image is more clear. The basic principle looks very simple, but the operation will not be so simple. As the principles of calculus is not complicated, how complex is the same. Here inkjet printer several technical breakthroughs in the historic chronicle.

Different Types Of Printer

Dot matrix printer
Dot matrix printer for a long time in the history of the printer used to occupy an important position, from 9-pin to 24-pin dot matrix printer history throughout the decades always. The reason why the dot matrix printer is not bad pop a long time in a very long period of time, which is inseparable with its extremely low cost of printing and good ease of use as well as special-purpose printing documents. Of course, it is very low print quality, a lot of work noise is that it can not adapt to the high-quality, high-speed commercial printing needs root knot, so now only in banks, supermarkets and other few places for votes in a single print You can see traces of it.
Color inkjet printer
Printer color inkjet printer because of its advantage of good printing results with lower price, thus occupying the majority of the low-end market. In addition, the ink-jet printer also has a more flexible paper handling capabilities, on the choice of the print media, inkjet printers also have certain advantages: both can print envelopes, letterheads and other ordinary media, you can also print a variety of film, photo paper, as below will focus on the introduction of the CD cover, rolls, T-shirt transfer paper and other special media.
Laser Printer
The laser printer is a high-tech development in recent years of a new product, is also expected to replace a inkjet printer models, divided into two black-and-white and color, it provides us with a higher quality, faster, more cost print mode. The price of low-end monochrome laser printer has been reduced to a few hundred dollars, reached the acceptable level of ordinary users. Its printing principle is to use a raster image processor generates To print the bit map of the page, and then convert the electrical signal such as a series of pulses sent to the laser transmitter, under the control of this series of pulses, the laser is a regular released. Meanwhile, the reflected beam is received by the photosensitive drum to light. Generating a laser emitting point is blank when the laser beam is not emitted, so that a line of points to be printed on the receiver. The receiver then rotated a short fixed distance on to continue to repeat the above operation. When the paper through the photosensitive drum, the drum of the colorant will be transferred to the paper, the printed page bitmap. Finally, when the paper after a pair of heated rollers, the colorant is heated and melted, and fixed in the paper, to complete the whole process of printing, this entire process is accurate and efficient. Although more expensive than the price of laser printers inkjet printer, but the single-page printing costs speaking, laser printers will have to be much cheaper. The high price of color laser printers, almost every up and down in the yuan, a narrow range of applications, it is difficult to be a normal user to accept, this is not too much to introduce.
Other printers
In addition to the above three most common printers, thermal transfer printers and large format printers applied several professional printer models. Thermal transfer printers using the transparent dye print, it has the advantage of professional high-quality image printing, you can print out pictures of nearly continuous tone photo to, generally used in the prepress and professional graphics output. Large-format printer, print Principles and inkjet printers are basically the same, but the print width can reach 24 inches (61cm) above. Its main use has been concentrated in the areas of engineering and construction. But with the increase of its ink durability improved graphics resolution, large format printers began to be more and more used in commercial production, the field sharply photography, pictorial arts and interior decoration publicity, but also become the printer family important one.
Professional 3D printer manufacturer the United States ZCorp is, the production of the world’s fastest 3D printers, is the only true color 3D printer, combined with a very low cost of supplies used so that the favor of many users around the world. The Israeli 2Objet machine PolyJet rapid prototyping technology, Eden series of three-dimensional printer, 16-micron ultra-high resolution, FullCure materials, in today’s world, forming the highest accuracy (thickness of only 0.016mm) is the easiest to use 3D printing rapid prototyping machine

Printer Cleaning

Internal cleaning
More sophisticated due to the internal parts of the printer, even ordinary wipe or lubricating have might be interested in print quality can not be underestimated impact on internal cleanup must be careful, in my experience, listed below can be cleaned parts, for your reference.
Toner protection device
The printer cartridge will have a number of pads, and their role is to absorb the excess toner in the paper transport roller system. Users can take it out of the machine, to clean up the way by hand. Usually in the new cartridge will also include a new liner.
Feed rollers
They are the part of the printer’s transfer, drag the paper from the bin to the interior of the printer, but in this process, the defiled oil and dust on the paper will precipitate in the roller, for a long time without cleaning will cause paper jams and paper feed The error, which is the most prone to failure of the printer. Here, we can use alcohol soaked cotton wool or a damp cloth to clean these sediments. In addition, a special roller cleaner in some specialized office equipment supplies stores.
Corona wire
They specialized wire inside the printer used to send static. Static electricity is used to attract the toner to the paper, but the dust precipitation will affect the efficiency of the use of static (especially the particularly severe impact for some old-fashioned laser printer). Users can use cotton cloth to gently wipe the dust, but please do not use alcohol or other solvents, they will affect the effect of the printer, which generally old laser printer, the corona wire inside the printer is bare. If you can not find the printer manual will specify their location.
Vents
Similar to the inside of the computer, many laser printers internal internal fan, perennial workers printer for dust and dirt will be blocked. We must ensure that regular cleaning of air vents and fan blades, keep the air flow inside the printer.
Laser printer internal parts can be cleaned, but we must pay attention: on the adsorption toner to paper due to the method of laser printers are high fever. So keep in mind that just completed the printer task printer cleaning work, and pay attention to all parts of the temperature warning signs. In some office supply stores, we can also see some specialized laser printer cleaning paper for sale, their surface is covered with a special paper, can absorb dust and excess toner in the printer paper path, at the same time because they will go through a complete printing process, so the cleaning of the inside of the printer is the most thorough.
External cleaning
Comparison, and cleaning of the internal and external cleaning of the printer in general is relatively easy and safe. The general user can be used in the outer surface of the clean-up of computer hardware, the use of cleaning when cleaning automobile interior / protective sprays, this product can help reduce static electricity, is relatively safe for the surface of the plastic. Cleaners can be sprayed on a soft cloth, and then use it to wipe the device housing (careful not to spray is injected into the inside of the machine), when cleaning the outside of the printer, we can export through the air, the fan channel and bin blowing compressed air to remove dust and dirt.
Printer although not delicate products, but due to the long-term in a high-temperature environment, regular cleaning and maintenance can effectively extend its life. Time cleaning generally January to external, internal cleaning every two months on the internal, can greatly improve the efficiency of the printer, why not do it?

Printer to help stem cell development

To obtain stem cells and its training to become a desired cell is not easy, because the body tissue is very complex, and is composed of a variety of different types of cells, they must be in the correct mode to be stratified to the normal operation. The scientists came up with a system, they put a layer of nutritional protein on a 2.54 cm square glass slide, then the ink-jet printer with an automatic control on top of a small amount of protein spray into a special form, which allows cells survival, growth and differentiation. Then, the stem cells on the such mold growth, it will form a different cell.
In order to design a new cell printer, Calvert to the electronic device stores later jet printer, modified its core components, and is controlled by software installed in the laboratory within a device. Calvert said: “What you see in the middle of the machine it is things like inkjet cartridges However, the spray nozzle is not the color of ink, but different types of cell culture medium, although this cell printing devices still use the micro dot matrix print mode, the cell culture medium was not damaged. ”
Calvert hopes that this technology is capable of producing a miniature organs for medical testing. He also hoped that future human beings can be manufactured in accordance with the needs of available organs for transplant.

Printer Consumables

Original supplies, general supplies, compatible supplies; divided into domestic and imported; the domestic Lenovo lattice grid, Xinge.; The general original print quality best domestic cost-effective, quality is also good. Some can be comparable and original. There are several varieties: cartridges, ink cartridges, toner, ribbon. Depending on the type of printer property of their owners.
Points according to the printer type, printer supplies can probably be classified as follows:
Dot matrix printer ribbon. Dot matrix printer ribbon, points broadband and narrowband. Part of the ribbon can be replaced individually, with replacement of the part of the ribbon to be even ribbon rack. Necessary, replace the ink ribbon of different colors; printer ribbon
Laser printer toner cartridge. Some laser printer toner cartridge can be separated, the toner is used up, you can easily fill the toner, and then continue to use the until the cartridge Aging replace; Some laser printer toner and drum is one of the toner runs out after the cartridge to be discarded, and a certain amount of waste. The toner cartridges cost accounting for a significant proportion of the whole cost.
An ink jet printer, ink, integrated cartridges. Inkjet printer, there is, according to print different colors, four colors, the five colors, or six colors, such as several, printer ink generally can be individually replaced one color of ink, rather than as the early years of the ink jet printer, one color ink runs out, you need a printer toner together with the rest of the colors from the replace wasteful. Some printer runs out of ink, just change the empty ink print nozzles can permanently use this printer benefits of lower-cost ink-downside is that if the print head several times, the print quality is good decreased also prone to clogging nozzle printer to be repaired or scrapped; Some printer nozzle and ink together is one of the serious, replace the cartridge, together with the bottom of the cartridge nozzle together replace him such cartridges cost comparison expensive, the benefits of this printer does not appear nozzle clogging problems indeed clogged, replace the print cartridge, the printer can use, print quality can be maintained beautifully.
Relatively speaking, the cost of use of the ribbon is the cheapest one downside is that the result is not satisfactory print color text and graphics can not be hit; the cost of the most expensive laser printer toner cartridges, print the highest accuracy, but the print color as effective as spray The ink printer; inkjet printer ink cartridges, moderate use of cost print color effect is the best, high precision printing, general inkjet color remains less than laser durable, long time to fade in color, moisture facilitation.